Perl - статьи


Создавайте POD-документацию для модулей и приложений

Одна из причин, по которой написание документации часто не доставляет никакого удовольствия, это "эффект пустой страницы". Многие программисты просто не знают с чего начать и что сказать.

Похоже наиболее простой путь написания документации в более приятной манере (и, следовательно, способ, с большей вероятностью приводящий к результату) - это обойти этот пустой экран, предоставив шаблон, который разработчики могут взять за основу, скопировать в свой код.

Для модуля шаблон документации может выглядеть следующим образом:

=head1 NAME

<Module::Name> - <One-line description of module's purpose>

=head1 VERSION

The initial template usually just has:

This documentation refers to <Module::Name> version 0.0.1.


use <Module::Name>;

# Brief but working code example(s) here showing the most common usage(s) # This section will be as far as many users bother reading, so make it as # educational and exemplary as possible.


A full description of the module and its features.

May include numerous subsections (i.e., =head2, =head3, etc.).


A separate section listing the public components of the module's interface.

These normally consist of either subroutines that may be exported, or methods that may be called on objects belonging to the classes that the module provides.

Name the section accordingly.

In an object-oriented module, this section should begin with a sentence (of the form "An object of this class represents ...") to give the reader a high-level context to help them understand the methods that are subsequently described.


A list of every error and warning message that the module can generate (even the ones that will "never happen"), with a full explanation of each problem, one or more likely causes, and any suggested remedies.


A full explanation of any configuration system(s) used by the module, including the names and locations of any configuration files, and the meaning of any environment variables or properties that can be set. These descriptions must also include details of any configuration language used.


A list of all of the other modules that this module relies upon, including any restrictions on versions, and an indication of whether these required modules are part of the standard Perl distribution, part of the module's distribution, or must be installed separately.


A list of any modules that this module cannot be used in conjunction with. This may be due to name conflicts in the interface, or competition for system or program resources, or due to internal limitations of Perl (for example, many modules that use source code filters are mutually incompatible).


A list of known problems with the module, together with some indication of whether they are likely to be fixed in an upcoming release.

Also, a list of restrictions on the features the module does provide: data types that cannot be handled, performance issues and the circumstances in which they may arise, practical limitations on the size of data sets, special cases that are not (yet) handled, etc.

The initial template usually just has:

There are no known bugs in this module.

Please report problems to <Maintainer name(s)> (<contact address>)

Patches are welcome.

=head1 AUTHOR

<Author name(s)> (<contact address>)


Copyright (c) <year> <copyright holder> (<contact address>). All rights reserved.

followed by whatever license you wish to release it under.

For Perl code that is often just:

This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself. See L<perlartistic>. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

Конечно, специфические особенности, который предоставляет Ваш шаблон, могут отличаться от показанных здесь. Вы формируете Ваш собственный шаблон исходя из Вашей собственной практики программирования. Наиболее вероятно, что будет варьироваться лицензия и сообщение об авторских правах, но также у Вас могут быть специфические соглашения об именовании версий, грамматике диагностических сообщений или указании авторства.

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